2010年3月22日 星期一 您的位置: 上海成譯翻譯有限公司 > 常見問題

奧巴馬上海演講

  • Good afternoon. It is a great honor for me to be here in Shanghai, and to have this opportunity to speak with all of you. I'd like to thank Fudan University's President Yang for his hospitality and his gracious welcome. I'd also like to thank our outstanding Ambassador, Jon Huntsman, who exemplifies the deep ties and respect between our nations. I don't know what he said, but I hope it was good. (Laughter.)

    What I'd like to do is to make some opening remarks, and then what I'm really looking forward to doing is taking questions, not only from students who are in the audience, but also we've received questions online, which will be asked by some of the students who are here in the audience, as well as by Ambassador Huntsman. And I am very sorry that my Chinese is not as good as your English, but I am looking forward to this chance to have a dialogue.

    This is my first time traveling to China, and I'm excited to see this majestic country. Here, in Shanghai, we see the growth that has caught the attention of the world -- the soaring skyscrapers, the bustling streets and entrepreneurial activity. And just as I'm impressed by these signs of China's journey to the 21st century, I'm eager to see those ancient places that speak to us from China's distant past. Tomorrow and the next day I hope to have a chance when I'm in Beijing to see the majesty of the Forbidden City and the wonder of the Great Wall. Truly, this is a nation that encompasses both a rich history and a belief in the promise of the future.

    The same can be said of the relationship between our two countries. Shanghai, of course, is a city that has great meaning in the history of the relationship between the United States and China. It was here, 37 years ago, that the Shanghai Communique opened the door to a new chapter of engagement between our governments and among our people. However, America's ties to this city -- and to this country -- stretch back further, to the earliest days of America's independence.

    In 1784, our founding father, George Washington, commissioned the Empress of China, a ship that set sail for these shores so that it could pursue trade with the Qing Dynasty. Washington wanted to see the ship carry the flag around the globe, and to forge new ties with nations like China. This is a common American impulse -- the desire to reach for new horizons, and to forge new partnerships that are mutually beneficial.

    Over the two centuries that have followed, the currents of history have steered the relationship between our countries in many directions. And even in the midst of tumultuous winds, our people had opportunities to forge deep and even dramatic ties. For instance, Americans will never forget the hospitality shown to our pilots who were shot down over your soil during World War II, and cared for by Chinese civilians who risked all that they had by doing so. And Chinese veterans of that war still warmly greet those American veterans who return to the sites where they fought to help liberate China from occupation.

    A different kind of connection was made nearly 40 years ago when the frost between our countries began to thaw through the simple game of table tennis. The very unlikely nature of this engagement contributed to its success -- because for all our differences, both our common humanity and our shared curiosity were revealed. As one American player described his visit to China -- "[The]people are just like us…The country is very similar to America, but still very different."

    Of course this small opening was followed by the achievement of the Shanghai Communique, and the eventual establishment of formal relations between the United States and China in 1979. And in three decades, just look at how far we have come.

    In 1979, trade between the United States and China stood at roughly $5 billion -- today it tops over $400 billion each year. The commerce affects our people's lives in so many ways. America imports from China many of the computer parts we use, the clothes we wear; and we export to China machinery that helps power your industry. This trade could create even more jobs on both sides of the Pacific, while allowing our people to enjoy a better quality of life. And as demand becomes more balanced, it can lead to even broader prosperity.

    In 1979, the political cooperation between the United States and China was rooted largely in our shared rivalry with the Soviet Union. Today, we have a positive, constructive and comprehensive relationship that opens the door to partnership on the key global issues of our time -- economic recovery and the development of clean energy; stopping the spread of nuclear weapons and the scourge of climate change; the promotion of peace and security in Asia and around the globe. All of these issues will be on the agenda tomorrow when I meet with President Hu.

    And in 1979, the connections among our people were limited. Today, we see the curiosity of those ping-pong players manifested in the ties that are being forged across many sectors. The second highest number of foreign students in the United States come from China, and we've seen a 50 percent increase in the study of Chinese among our own students. There are nearly 200 "friendship cities" drawing our communities together. American and Chinese scientists cooperate on new research and discovery. And of course, Yao Ming is just one signal of our shared love of basketball -- I'm only sorry that I won't be able to see a Shanghai Sharks game while I'm visiting.

    It is no coincidence that the relationship between our countries has accompanied a period of positive change. China has lifted hundreds of millions of people out of poverty -- an accomplishment unparalleled in human history -- while playing a larger role in global events. And the United States has seen our economy grow along with the standard of living enjoyed by our people, while bringing the Cold War to a successful conclusion.

    There is a Chinese proverb: "Consider the past, and you shall know the future." Surely, we have known setbacks and challenges over the last 30 years. Our relationship has not been without disagreement and difficulty. But the notion that we must be adversaries is not predestined -- not when we consider the past. Indeed, because of our cooperation, both the United States and China are more prosperous and more secure. We have seen what is possible when we build upon our mutual interests, and engage on the basis of mutual respect.

    And yet the success of that engagement depends upon understanding -- on sustaining an open dialogue, and learning about one another and from one another. For just as that American table tennis player pointed out -- we share much in common as human beings, but our countries are different in certain ways.

    I believe that each country must chart its own course. China is an ancient nation, with a deeply rooted culture. The United States, by comparison, is a young nation, whose culture is determined by the many different immigrants who have come to our shores, and by the founding documents that guide our democracy.

    Those documents put forward a simple vision of human affairs, and they enshrine several core principles -- that all men and women are created equal, and possess certain fundamental rights; that government should reflect the will of the people and respond to their wishes; that commerce should be open, information freely accessible; and that laws, and not simply men, should guarantee the administration of justice.

    Of course, the story of our nation is not without its difficult chapters. In many ways -- over many years -- we have struggled to advance the promise of these principles to all of our people, and to forge a more perfect union. We fought a very painful civil war, and freed a portion of our population from slavery. It took time for women to be extended the right to vote, workers to win the right to organize, and for immigrants from different corners of the globe to be fully embraced. Even after they were freed, African Americans persevered through conditions that were separate and not equal, before winning full and equal rights.

    None of this was easy. But we made progress because of our belief in those core principles, which have served as our compass through the darkest of storms. That is why Lincoln could stand up in the midst of civil war and declare it a struggle to see whether any nation, conceived in liberty, and "dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal" could long endure. That is why Dr. Martin Luther King could stand on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial and ask that our nation live out the true meaning of its creed. That's why immigrants from China to Kenya could find a home on our shores; why opportunity is available to all who would work for it; and why someone like me, who less than 50 years ago would have had trouble voting in some parts of America, is now able to serve as its President.

    And that is why America will always speak out for these core principles around the world. We do not seek to impose any system of government on any other nation, but we also don't believe that the principles that we stand for are unique to our nation. These freedoms of expression and worship -- of access to information and political participation -- we believe are universal rights. They should be available to all people, including ethnic and religious minorities -- whether they are in the United States, China, or any nation. Indeed, it is that respect for universal rights that guides America's openness to other countries; our respect for different cultures; our commitment to international law; and our faith in the future.

    These are all things that you should know about America. I also know that we have much to learn about China. Looking around at this magnificent city -- and looking around this room -- I do believe that our nations hold something important in common, and that is a belief in the future. Neither the United States nor China is content to rest on our achievements. For while China is an ancient nation, you are also clearly looking ahead with confidence, ambition, and a commitment to see that tomorrow's generation can do better than today's.

    In addition to your growing economy, we admire China's extraordinary commitment to science and research -- a commitment borne out in everything from the infrastructure you build to the technology you use. China is now the world's largest Internet user -- which is why we were so pleased to include the Internet as a part of today's event. This country now has the world's largest mobile phone network, and it is investing in the new forms of energy that can both sustain growth and combat climate change -- and I'm looking forward to deepening the partnership between the United States and China in this critical area tomorrow. But above all, I see China's future in you -- young people whose talent and dedication and dreams will do so much to help shape the 21st century.

    I've said many times that I believe that our world is now fundamentally interconnected. The jobs we do, the prosperity we build, the environment we protect, the security that we seek -- all of these things are shared. And given that interconnection, power in the 21st century is no longer a zero-sum game; one country's success need not come at the expense of another. And that is why the United States insists we do not seek to contain China's rise. On the contrary, we welcome China as a strong and prosperous and successful member of the community of nations -- a China that draws on the rights, strengths, and creativity of individual Chinese like you.

    To return to the proverb -- consider the past. We know that more is to be gained when great powers cooperate than when they collide. That is a lesson that human beings have learned time and again, and that is the example of the history between our nations. And I believe strongly that cooperation must go beyond our government. It must be rooted in our people -- in the studies we share, the business that we do, the knowledge that we gain, and even in the sports that we play. And these bridges must be built by young men and women just like you and your counterparts in America.

    That's why I'm pleased to announce that the United States will dramatically expand the number of our students who study in China to 100,000. And these exchanges mark a clear commitment to build ties among our people, as surely as you will help determine the destiny of the 21st century. And I'm absolutely confident that America has no better ambassadors to offer than our young people. For they, just like you, are filled with talent and energy and optimism about the history that is yet to be written.

    So let this be the next step in the steady pursuit of cooperation that will serve our nations, and the world. And if there's one thing that we can take from today's dialogue, I hope that it is a commitment to continue this dialogue going forward.

    So thank you very much. And I look forward n0w to taking some questions from all of you. Thank you very much. (Applause.)

    你好。諸位下午好。我感到很榮幸能夠有機會到上海跟你們交談,我要感謝復旦大學的楊校長,感謝他的款待和熱情的歡迎。我還想感謝我們精彩的大使洪博培,他是我們兩國間深厚的紐帶。我不知道他剛才說什么,但是希望他說得很好。

    我今天預備這樣,先做一個開場白,我真正希望做的是回答在座的問題,不但回答在座的學生問題,同時還可以從網上得到一些問題,由在座的一些學生和洪博培大使代為提問。很抱歉,我的中文遠不如你們的英文,所以我期待和你們的對話。這是我首次訪問中國,我看到你們博大的國家,感到很高興。在上海這里,我們看到了矚目的增長,高聳的塔樓,繁忙的街道,還有企業家的精神。這些都是中國步入21世紀的跡象,讓我感到驚嘆。同時我也急切的要看到向我們展現中國古老的古跡,明天和后天我要到北京去看宏偉壯麗的故宮和令人嘆為觀止的長城,這個國度既有豐富的歷史,又有對未來憧憬的信念。

    而我們兩國的關系也是如此,上海在美中關系的歷史中是個具有意義的重大城市,在30年前,《上海公報》打開了我們兩國政丨府和兩國人民接觸交往的新的篇章。

    不過美國與這個國家的紐帶可以追溯更久遠的過去,追溯到美國獨立的初期,喬治-華盛頓組織了皇后號的下水儀式,這個船成功前往大清王朝,華盛頓希望看到這艘船前往各地,與中國結成新的紐帶。希望中國開辟新的地平線,建立新的伙伴關系。在其后的兩個世紀中,歷史洪流使我們兩國關系向許多不同的方向發展,而即使在最動蕩的方向中,我們的兩國人民打造深的,甚至有戲劇性的紐帶,比如美國人永遠不會忘記,在二戰期間,美國飛行員在中國上空被擊落后,當地人民對他們的款待,中國公民冒著失去一切的危險罩著他們。

    而參加二戰的老兵仍舊歡迎故地重游的美國老兵,他們在那里參戰。40年前,我們兩國間開啟了又一種聯系,兩國關系開始解凍,通過乒乓球的比賽解凍關系。我們兩國之間有著分歧,但是我們也有著共同的人性及有著共同的好奇,就像一位乒乓球運動員一樣,那時的國家就是一樣,但是這個小小的開頭帶來了《上海公報》的問世,最終還帶來了美中在1979年建交。在其后的30年我們又取得了長足的進展,1979年美中貿易只有50億美元,現在已經超過了4000億美元。

    貿易在許多方面影響人民的生活,比如美國電腦中許多部件,還有穿的衣服都是從中國進口的,我們向中國出口中國工業要使用的機器,這種貿易可以在太平洋兩岸創造更多的就業機會,讓我們的人民過上質量更高的生活。

    在需求趨于平衡的過程中,這種貿易可以是更廣闊的貿易。如今我們有著積極合作和全面的關系,為我們在當前重大的全球問題上建立伙伴關系打開了大門,這些問題包括經濟復蘇、潔凈能源的開發、制止核武器擴散以及應對氣候變化。還有在亞洲及全球各地促進和平和穩定,所有這些問題我明天與胡丨主席會談時都會談到。1979年的時候,我們兩國人民的聯系十分有限,如今當年乒乓球運動員的好奇可以在許多領域建立的聯系中都可以看到,在美國數量最多的留學生都來自中國。而在美國的學生中,學中文的人數增加了50%。我們兩國有近200個友好城市,美中科學家在許多新的研究領域和發現領域進行合作,而我們兩國人民都熱愛籃球,姚明就是個例子。不過,此行中我不能觀看上海鯊魚隊的比賽,有點遺憾。

    那么我們兩國之間的這種關系給我們帶來了積極的變化,這并不是偶爾的,中國使得億萬人民脫貧,而這種成就是人類歷史上史無前例的。而中國在全球問題中也發揮更大的作用,美國也目睹了我們經濟的成長。中國有句古言,溫故而知新。當然,我們過去30年中也碰到了挫折和挑戰,我們的關系并不是沒有困難的,沒有分歧的。但是我們必須一定是對手這種想法不應該是一成不變的。由于我們兩國的合作,美中兩國都變得更加繁榮、更加安全。我們基于相互的利益、相互的尊重就能有成就。
    不過,這種接觸的成功要取決于我們要彼此了解,要能夠進行開誠布公的對話,彼此進行了解。就像當年美國乒乓球運動員所說的,我們作為人有著共同的向往,但是我們兩國又不同。我認為我們兩國每個國家都應該勾畫出自己要走的路,中國是一個文明古國,它有著博大精深的文化。相對而言,美國是一個年輕的國家,它的文化受到來自許多不同國家移民的影響,而指導我們民丨主制度文件的影響,我有一個非常簡樸的向往,代表了一些核心的原則,就是所有的人生來平等,都有著基本的權利,而政丨府應當反映人們的意志,貿易應該是開放的,信息流通應當是自由的,而法律要保證這個公平。

    當然,我們的國家歷史也不是沒有過困難的地方,從很多方面來講,很多年以來,我們是通過斗爭來促進這些原則或者是所有的人民能夠享受到,為了締造一個更完美的聯合,我們也打過一個很痛苦的內戰,把一部分我們被奴役的人口釋放出來,經過一段時間才能使婦女有投票權,勞工有組織權,包括來自各地的移民能夠全部被接受。即使他們被解放以后,非洲裔美國人也和美國人經過一些分開的、不平等的條件,經過一段時間才爭取到全面的平等權利,所有這些是不輕易的。但是我們對這些核心原則的信念我們取得的進展,在最黑暗的風暴當中是作為我們的指南針。

    這是為什么林肯在內戰期間站起來說過,任何一個國家以自由、以所有人類平等的原則能夠長久的存在,也就是為什么金博士在林肯紀念館的前臺站起來,說我們國家要必須真正的實現我們的信念。也就是為什么來自中國或者肯尼亞的移民能夠到我們的家,也是為什么一個不到50年前以前在某些地方連投票都遇到困難的人,現在就能夠做到那個國家的總統。

    這就是為什么美國永遠為了全世界各地的核心原則說話,我們不尋求把任何政治體制強制給任何國家,但是我們也不認為我們所支持的這些原則是我們國家所獨有的,這些表達自由、宗教崇拜自由、接觸信息的機會、政治的參與,我們認為這些是普世的權利,應該是所有人民能夠享受到,包括少數民族和宗教的族群,不管是在中國、美國和任何國家,對于普遍權利的尊敬,作為美國對其他國家的開放態度的指導原則,我們對其他文化的尊重,我們對國際法的承諾和對未來的信念的原則。

    所有這些都是你們知道關于美國的一些情況,我們有很多要從中國學習。我們看看這個偉大城市的各地,也看看這個房間,我就相信我們兩國有很重要的共同點,也就是對未來的信念,不管是美國還是中國,對現在的成就不能感到自滿。雖然中國是一個古老的國家,你們也是布滿信心展望未來,致力于下一代能夠比這一代做的更好,除了你們不斷增長的經濟之外,我們很配合中國在科學和研究方面所投入的力量,包括建設的基礎設施和使用的技術,中國是世界上使用互聯網技術最多的國家,這就是我們很興奮互聯網是今天活動的一部分,這個國家也擁有最大的機動電話網絡,對新的投資保持繼承增長,和應對氣候變化方面有新的投資,我也希望兩國加強這方面的合作。

    但是更重要是看到年輕人你們的才能、你們的獻身精神、你們的夢想在21世紀實現方面會發揮很大的作用。我說過很多次,我認為世界是互相連接的,我們所做的工作,我們所建立的繁榮,我們所保護的環境,我們所追求的安全,所有這些都是共同的,而且是互相連接的,所以21世紀的實力不在零和游戲,一個國家成功不應該以另外一個國家的犧牲作為代價。這就是我們為什么不尋求遏制中國的崛起。相反,我們歡迎中國作為一個國際社會的強的、繁榮的、成功的成員。

    再回到剛才的諺語,我們應該考慮過去。在大的國家合作的時候,就比互相碰撞會取得更多得好處,這就是人類在歷史上不斷吸取的教訓。我認為我們合作應該是超越政丨府間的合作,應該是以人民為基礎,我們所研究的內容,我們所從事的生意,我們送獲得的知識,我們所進行的體育比賽,所有這些橋梁必須是年輕人共同合作建立起來,這就是我為什么非常高興我們要大大的公布我們到中國學習的留學生人數,要增加到10萬人。這樣交流就會表現出我們是愿意致力于加強兩國人民的聯系,而且我是絕對有信心。對美國來說,最好的大使、最好的使者就是年輕人,他們和你們一樣,很有才能,充滿活力,對未來的歷史還是很樂觀的,這是我們合作的下一步,惠及兩國和全世界。

    今天可以吸收的一個最重要的內容就是我們不斷地向前推進。非常感謝。現在歡迎各位提問題。

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